top of page
Writer's Craft In Fiction 
Learn to be a great writer through instruction, research,
development and tips.
Blog Posts. By Janett Lee Wawrzynia
k, Ph.D.,

April 17, 2016 Your Story’s Main Idea Plan 

The important main single story idea is a sentence.  Following sentences show with a picture of supporting details, to understand the story idea. Sentences have a clear purpose and give evidence that is significant and meaningful to advance the story.  Develop enough interesting detail with action, so the story seems more original and entertaining.  Stunning facts that unfold to inform can be compelling and advance the story.  Engage readers with description, quickly giving a clear sense of understanding; when they know why it was written.  Characters have their own voice that complements the action in dialogue, moving the story forward.  Before you begin to write, an outline can be used for points to flow logically, with organization into coherent pieces.  Writing your ideas down can extend your thought beyond a first impression and for later evaluation. From what you have read, word influences can inspire, inform and evoke to improve your writing.

The Guilty a book by David Baldacci:  Will Robie is the government's most professional, disciplined, and lethal assassin. He infiltrates the most hostile countries in the world, defeats our enemies' advanced security measures, and eliminates threats before they ever reach our shores.

But now, his skills have left him. Sent overseas on a critical assignment, he fails, unable to pull the trigger. Absent his talents, Robie is a man without a mission, and without a purpose. To recover what he has lost, Robie must confront what he has tried to forget for over twenty years: his own past.

One of the best books ever, overall exciting, and interesting from the first chapter to an amazing end.

The Crossing a book by Michael Connelly:  Detective Harry Bosch has retired from the LAPD, but his half-brother, defense attorney Mickey Haller, needs his help. The murder rap against his client seems ironclad, but Mickey is sure it’s a setup. Though it goes against all his instincts, Bosch takes the case. With the secret help of his former LAPD partner Lucia Soto, he turns the investigation inside the police department. But as Bosch gets closer to discovering the truth, he makes himself a target.

This is a thriller book skillfully written, with interwoven details to understand all levels of the story.

December 17, 2015 How to Write a Character Driven Story -

Identify what your characters want, their motivation and emotional change in the story.  Characters come to life from a guide chart, on their past and individuality for consistent story flow.  Fit the characters fears, drives and goals to the difficulty or obstacle in their path.  Does the character perceive things the way everyone in general might?  What affects the character for change?  How does the character change?  What triggers the driven character and to what form of action?  Would the character be asked, “Is that you?”  “Is that really you?”  What makes the character interesting in the description?  With a clear objective and growth the character solves the problem that readers may share in.  Character driven focuses on growth by showing internal change and its influences, to develop the plot and story.  Show unique actions a dramatic character takes to overcome problems, danger on a path to attain the goal.  Place inner tension conflict to develop layering situations that raise the stakes to take action.  Scenes for your story are created by actions dealing with encounters, event or problem consequences.  A story ending has emphases on maximum unpredictable stakes.  Conflict has been resolved at the story ending.

Character driven novels:

M. L. Stedman’ The Light Between Oceans, 1926. Tom Sherbourne is a young lighthouse keeper on a remote island off Western Australia. The only inhabitants of Janus Rock, he and his wife Isabel live a quiet life, cocooned from the rest of the world.  Then one April morning a boat washes ashore carrying a dead man and a crying infant - and the path of the couple's lives hits an unthinkable crossroads.  Only years later do they discover the devastating consequences of the decision they made that day - as the baby's real story unfolds ...

Patrick Rothfuss’ The Name Of The Wind, so begins the tale of Kvothe—from his childhood in a troupe of traveling players, to years spent as a near-feral orphan in a crime-riddled city, to his daringly brazen yet successful bid to enter a difficult and dangerous school of magic. In these pages you will come to know Kvothe as a notorious magician, an accomplished thief, a masterful musician, and an infamous assassin. But The Name of the Wind is so much more—for the story it tells reveals the truth behind Kvothe's legend.

Colum McCann’ TransAtlantic, these three iconic crossings are connected by a series of remarkable women whose personal stories are caught up in the swells of history. Beginning with Irish housemaid Lily Duggan, who crosses paths with Frederick Douglass, the novel follows her daughter and granddaughter, Emily and Lottie, and culminates in the present-day story of Hannah Carson, in whom all the hopes and failures of previous generations live on. From the loughs of Ireland to the flatlands of Missouri and the windswept coast of Newfoundland, their journeys mirror the progress and shape of history. They each learn that even the most unassuming moments of grace have a way of rippling through time, space and memory.

Charlotte Brontë’ Jane Eyre, one of the greatest and most perennially popular works of English fiction. Although the poor but plucky heroine is outwardly of plain appearance, she possesses an indomitable spirit, a sharp wit and great courage. She is forced to battle against the exigencies of a cruel guardian, a harsh employer and a rigid social order. All of which circumscribe her life and position when she becomes governess to the daughter of the mysterious, sardonic and attractive Mr. Rochester. However, there is great kindness and warmth in this epic love story, which is set against the magnificent backdrop of the Yorkshire moors.

December 15, 2015 How to Use Pace in Writing -

To develop uniqueness and feeling of the moment forward pace is reduced.  Pace slows with silence and description of sight, smell or touch as an event unfolds extending tension.  Expand tension with characters inner thoughts before their reaction, dialogue or scene description.  Readers share terror, fear or joy in events and the experiences of crowds or characters.  When characters thoughts of-and their circumstances are described, the scene slows then feelings increase unique to the character.  Scenes slow down the action.  Sound and new setting description can direct, set mood and pick up the pace.  A characters statement with opinion imagery can control scene pace, a contrast to the previous scene.  Action dialogue scenes can pick up the pace.  Narrative information about key scenes brings the scene alive for the reader.  Those scenes may be effective for chapter openings or section transitions.   Pick up the pace by condensing slow text and summery also speeds up the pace.  Create a clear writing flow that makes the logical connections and is easier to read.

Slow Pace:

J.R.R. Tolkien’ The Hobbit (Middle-Earth Universe), this introduction to the hobbit Bilbo Baggins, the wizard Gandalf, Gollum, and the spectacular world of Middle-earth recounts of the adventures of a reluctant hero, a powerful and dangerous ring, and the cruel dragon Smaug the Magnificent. The text in this 372-page paperback edition is based on that first published in Great Britain by Collins Modern Classics (1998), and includes a note on the text by Douglas A. Anderson (2001). Unforgettable!

Josephine Tey’ The Daughter of Time, inspector Alan Grant of Scotland Yard, recuperating from a broken leg, becomes fascinated with a contemporary portrait of Richard III that bears no resemblance to the Wicked Uncle of history. Could such a sensitive, noble face actually belong to one of the world’s most heinous villains—a venomous hunchback who may have killed his brother’s children to make his crown secure? Or could Richard have been the victim, turned into a monster by the usurpers of England’s throne? Grant determines to find out once and for all, with the help of the British Museum and an American scholar, what kind of man Richard Plantagenet really was and who killed the Little Princes in the Tower.


Hakan Nesser’ Hour of the Wolf, soon Chief Inspector Van Veeteren, now retired from the Maardam police force, will face his greatest trial yet as someone close to him is, inexplicably, murdered. Van Veeteren's former colleagues, desperate for answers, struggle to decipher the clues to this appalling crime.

Elmore Leonard’ Djibouti, they learn soon enough that almost no one in the Middle East is who he seems to be. The most successful pirate, driving his Mercedes around Djibouti, appears to be a good guy, but his pal, a cultured Saudi diplomat, has dubious connections. Billy Wynn, a Texas billionaire, plays mysterious roles as the mood strikes him. He's promised his girlfriend, Helene, a nifty fashion model, that he'll marry her if she doesn't become seasick or bored while circling the world on his yacht. And there's Jama Raisuli, a black al Qaeda terrorist from Miami, who's vowed to blow up something big.

December 14, 2015 How to Use Foreshadowing in Writing -

Foreshadowing builds anticipation for readers in what could occur, adding unexpected striking apprehension to your writing.  Suspense is created in mystery novels, with misleading or distracting words and phrases for readers.  When foretold unusual and surprising events seem believable, using foreshadowing that prepares the readers.  When used at the beginning of a story or chapter, readers may expect coming events or an experience in a story. There are various ways of creating a foreshadowing.  A writer may use dialogue hints to indicate a cause for changes in events or traits in the future.  Any event or action in the story may signal to the readers about future events or action.  Title or a chapter title can suggest what will happen.  In fiction the atmosphere of suspense creates a mood, or it conveys information the tone giving readers interest to know more.  Clues both subtle and direct in the text seem believable; readers feel prepared for the plot events when they happen with foreshadowing.  When there is a possibility of conflict foreshadowing can be used, it advances the story.   Unusual details, differences in progression, a unique emotional significance; can suggest and later prove significant for plot or character.

Examples of foreshadowing:

John Steinbeck’ East of Eden, based his novel and named his characters Caleb and Aron to foreshadow their respective fates from the known story of Cain and Abel.

Agatha Christie’ Murder on the Orient Express, conversation overheard by Poirot between Mary Debenham and Colonel Arbuthnot on the way to Stamboul, Ratchett tells Poirot someone is going to murder him, Princess Dragomiroff tells Poirot her arms are not strong and looks at her arms.

Ray Bradbury’ A Sound of Thunder, the science of time travel takes hunters back in time. Travis insists that interrupting any of the natural processes in the past could have irreparable repercussions for the future.  When the hunting party returns to their time, Eckels notices a strange smell in the air. It's faint, but something is different. He looks around him trying to figure out what has changed. The immediate thing that he noticed had changed was the sign upon the wall. The words were spelled differently, and Eckels begins to panic, seeing firsthand the repercussions of his stroll off of the path. The death of a single butterfly has dramatically altered the world they once knew.

John Milton’ Paradise Lost, turning to their daily obligations, they are reminded that they have power and free will.  They may be able to attain a purer state through obedience.  Eve's dream is confirmation and emphasis on what the reader knows must and will happen.  Further, by bringing up the dream at this point in the text, Milton makes the reader analogous to God. Both God and the reader know that Adam and Eve will fall, but neither the reader nor God is the cause of that fall.  

December 13, 2015 How to Write a Compelling Novel, Plan |

Compelling writing is emotional and engaging with many obstacles.  The protagonist is selfless in bravery and there for the benefit of others.  An almost impossible urgent mission is another element of an excellent thriller.  Dialogue for each character should be unique for their identity, driving their actions consistently.  Each character should have purpose and pursue something.  Provide interesting relevant details, evidence and subtle differences in the level of importance.  Develop the story with clear points readers may have experienced and bring your story to life.  Show the audience through clear description with action and conflict, so they can see the purpose and become involved.  Connect with the audience in a path through obstacles with focus to an outstanding outcome and change.  Readers participate in the decisions and action for what could happen next.  Resolve questions or conflicts.

Compelling novel examples:

Albert Camus’ The Plague, It may be a human instinct to search for meaning in every tragedy.  As Dr. Rieux says, of the plague's survivors, "For some time, anyhow, they would be happy. They knew now that if there is one thing one can always yearn for and sometimes attain, it is human love."

Caleb Carr’ The Alienist, Theodore Roosevelt, in a highly unorthodox move, enlists the two men in the murder investigation, counting on the reserved Kreizler's intellect and Moore's knowledge of New York's vast criminal underworld. They are joined by Sara Howard, a brave and determined woman who works as a secretary in the police department.  - amassing a psychological profile of the man they're looking for based on the details of his crimes. Their dangerous quest takes them into the tortured past and twisted mind of a murderer who has killed before. and will kill again before the hunt is over."

John le Carré’ The Spy Who Came in From the Cold, Setting a standard that has never been surpassed, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold is a devastating tale of duplicity and espionage.

Cormac McCarthy’ The Road, is the profoundly moving story of a journey. It boldly imagines a future in which no hope remains, but in which the father and his son, "each the other's world entire," are sustained by love. Awesome in the totality of its vision, it is an unflinching meditation on the worst and the best that we are capable of: ultimate destructiveness, desperate tenacity, and the tenderness that keeps two people alive in the face of total devastation.

December 12, 2015 How to Develop a Theme in Writing

Theme is the cause for incidents the reader is reading about that occur; cause shows or relates to events affecting the antagonist.  Theme is why direction is taken to advance to exciting new surroundings, a situation or characters that can develop more action.  The leading characters goal is achieved through effects, overcoming obstacles in pursuit of a goal.  As each incident cause becomes known, it can give further direction for responses that advance the story.  The protagonist may inspire fear or losses through a length of forceful events, to influence the antagonist.  The antagonist may in part or completely halt afflictions to their main objective, due to the duration of events then the protagonist achieves the goal.

H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds, theme is of compliance through fear of destruction, from a technologically advanced civilization.  This invasion of inhuman monstrous aliens, were physically grotesque and only able to processes thoughts destroying all but themselves.

Jules Verne’ Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, theme is man surviving the conflicts living an undersea life.  In the midst of undersea dangers, the leading character previously unknown, demonstrates his means of naval technological superiority and sinks a ship.

Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol, theme is guilt of a selfish man in the giving environment of Christmas.  Ghosts revealed to the lead character, the terrible aspects of his human nature upon his victims.  Change came to the leading character through his new connection to mortality.

Alexandre Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo, theme is vengeance of a man further incited by his enemies.  The lead character changes realizing his punishment of others through deception must end with forgiveness.

October 14, 2015 How to Revise, Edit and Proofread Your Writing

Your writing will be more interesting if the subject is not the first thing in every sentence you write.  A variety of sentence types, long or short are more interesting to readers.  Beginning the story with a question drives scenes that follow.  Each scene has a different obstacle, intriguing creating suspense to the end and then answered.

Revising is the review of the rough draft content, organization, and tone, then adding, deleting, and organizing as necessary.  During revision the writing should be consistent, clear and concise, to who you are writing to and why.  Write with purpose to attain or accomplish and enough understood description; the tone can present settings, situations and separate characters in their efforts or actions.

Editing enhances for detailed content, organization and style in paragraphs and sentences.  The order of cause and effect convey logical patterns of thought.  Information consistently supports all points with sufficient evidence advancing toward the overall goal.

Organized paragraphs have a clear introduction and conclusion each written in a logical sequence.  Sentences in each paragraph relate to the one main thought.  A clear topic sentence should be in each paragraph.  Transition to the next paragraph is clear and advances the story.

Properly structured sentence editing defines any unclear terms with precise appropriate words and meaning.  Thoughts are complete in order and details, without being repetitive or having repetitive word choices.  Sentence strength is clear not rambling or wordy and advances the story, even in slower active voice information tension scenes. 

Style editing is the way appropriate tone was written.  Sentences are varied in length and structure.  For the meaning of text, style gives the reader impression from the information and the purpose for writing.  Tone is objective or subjective, logical or emotional, intimate or distant, serious or humorous; as in conversation.  Voice is a personnel presentation in writing or speaking different from other individuals.  Use an active voice to strengthen writing and make it clear who is doing what with action, energy and directness.  Use a variety of adjective words to describe or modify another person or thing.  Active verbs convey action, movement and speed up the scene adding excitement without unnecessary information.

Expectations of the audience you’re writing for determines what constitutes common knowledge. Citations are written in the correct format and appropriately cited from other sources.

To make a good impression paying attention to the details in proofreading is important; and is last and separate from editing. Proofreading is the time to correct mechanical errors such as punctuation, grammar, spacing, format and other errors.  Punctuation is important so do not overuse it when a coma or period will work instead. 

July 20, 2015 Ideas For Creative Writing – Suspense With Focus On Writing Dialogue

For suspense, tension grows as the dialogue continues; making the reader wait for the answer.  Description is setting the scene without telling and the dialogue exchange adds suspense before revealing the answer.  When creating conflict scenes between two or more characters, you might consider dialogue to delay and reveal the answer in another scene.

Below is an excerpt from the Thriller book: Secret Terror In Wavelengths

“Find somewhere no one would think to look for us,” Nar said.

“And then,” Ilyon said. A suspicious glint came into his eyes. “Do we get to know where we are going?” Ilyon said. “Why do I have a suppressed feeling about this?”

For a long moment they just looked at each other.

“We might find a way to enter the Faster Quantum undetected,” Nar said.

“Yes if humans find and duplicate the right wavelength,” Ilyon said. “Our changed wavelengths could possibly travel and

never be noticed next to theirs. Anyone that strays to close is attached,” Ilyon admitted pursing his lips. “Wave links are also projected directly into their minds. We have wave links monitoring individual’s actions and speech. Their speech is monitored through seismic wavelengths. The Wave Links know what desirable mental prompting to project into humans changing the course of thoughts to our direction.”

“Excellent,” Nar said. “You will tell us how our technology is a success to increase our attacks. Distractions are constantly sent into the minds of individuals.”

The book Secret Terror In Wavelengths – Wave Links has a technology society slant and can be purchased at:

May 31, 2015 What is Narrative Writing? – Definition With Component Example

Narrative writing, is writing that tells a story and usually categorized as fiction. Some nonfiction is based on real facts telling a story, to classify it as narrative writing.  Stories must have characters, plot, conflict, setting, tone, atmosphere and point of view.  A component example for an element in the setting follows about space. A pulse or excited as hydrogen in a timed transition, at the level of concentration becoming excited energy; again the electromagnetic conducting system continually maintains its moment by moment holding pattern. The light

speed travel holding pattern of gravitation, functioning with a whole universe is not regulated to one seen component space,

stars, sun, moon, earth; as each area is sustaining the whole, in connected wavelength gravitation traveling conversions.

The Quantum Theory timed transitions of emission or absorption of energy quantum are connected; in gaseous state elements radiate and absorb light frequencies. Each element absorbs energy when the quantum or amount of energy is reached, emitting or absorbing limited amounts. In the photoelectric effect quantum are called photons, each carrying the exact amount of energy the atom absorbed.

The Strong Nuclear Force or strong force holds together subatomic particles of the nucleus, protons carrying a positive

charge and neutrons carrying no charge. The exchange of particles called mesons creates the strong nuclear force. With the meson exchange in place the strong nuclear force holds participating nucleons together. The electromagnetic force can cause repulsion from other

proton nucleus. Then to allow meson exchange causing the strong force, two protons nuclei, must be high temperatures

for extremely fast movement or under intense pressure; allowing close exchange of meson to cause the strong force.Weak Nuclear Force or weak force, because its short range field strength is less than electromagnetism.

The four fundamental interaction forces of nature are Strong Nuclear Force, Electromagnetism, Weak NuclearForce and Gravitation. Gravitational strong fields are described for Planks linearized gravity. Gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, including neutron stars and black holes as two examples.

April 26, 2015 Writing Scene Transition in Novels

Scene transitions use insight directing known causes; from the completion of one event to begin the next scene, for a level of fact.

To change a scene with a new tone or mood, the transition immediately establishes the new tone or mood.  Word descriptions are emphasized to express the imagery and set the tone.  Mood evolves with change through vivid descriptive words to add presence.  Mood is the tension and emotion atmosphere crafted advancing the story.  Characters can evolve with mood through transition.

Scene changes can be identified by the description of a new named place, or characters in action with effects their new surroundings provide.  An event can be described with levels and discoveries.  Time and date are also a transition for scene change. Characters responses with expected action, in chosen areas can indicate planned time for the scene to change.

A new viewpoint character is identified immediately with name, different thoughts, emotions and actions to change scenes in a chapter.  When transitioning with foreshadow at the end of a chapter, a new chapter is used for the scene change.  Some description is used at the beginning of the new chapter; it is the time honored place that the scene changes are expected.

Narration pace moves a story without becoming a scene.  With a longer description the pace is slow, as the author gives details changing the place or time in a setting.  Narrative pace can speed up or slow down rhythm with punctuation and word choice.  A narration pace in the story is not what is taking place; during a scene the characters in action or opposition move the story forward, then narrative pace is sped up with shorter words. Transitions smoothly connect and advance the story direction with purpose, complications and result.  Transitions are usually short and can be used in story elements and narration.  Decide how the scene transition provides: description, tension, pace, dialogue, mood or tone.  Transitions through to the story end connect the resolution or knowledge gained changing the main character.

March 15, 2015 Inspiration To Start Writing

Always write everything down you see and visualize on a subject immediately.  Micromanage subject areas with additional entries of words and phrases that may make your story more interesting. Take a notebook and study people, recollections of circumstances are inspiration for: setting, protagonist, antagonist in conflict with protagonist, narrative method, dialogue, conflict, mood/atmosphere, theme the central story idea.  Connect with your surroundings through: sight, sound, smell, taste, with a sense of feeling sun, snow or shadows to add realism having a purpose for story advancement. 

Writing ideas that attract you may be uncomplicated.  A character idea may be the discovery of an everyday occurrence that develops profound effects outside the expected.  As a writer you are the captain of your ship and create the course of your story.

How a character thinks and talks in a descriptive presentation to other characters is your voice. The voice of a third person narrator is separate observing the story progress and not participating.  The writer expresses who the character is and why they act and interact.  Action is used to show how the event happened and its results.  Dialogue a clear natural movement of speech and how much further extraordinary the incident is; the more you are freed to come up with solutions and direction that make sense. Your story is about the incident and answers questions that develop from an incident.

Drive your protagonist into an unexpected transition with purpose through action, and notice the links fit into place.  Without over explanation from each characters perception, how did they get into their position and what course will achieve their resolution?  Each character type has dialogue to further their purpose.  A reader connects through dialogue in an experience enhanced with daily understood communication through speech.  In the course of dialogue for each character type there should be an understood connecting presentation.  Your story presentation is directed to the type of readers who may have an interest in your story.  

To write a novel planning and attention are needed.  Choose ideas important to you and that you’re interested in to share your writing.  Scenes are one technique to open your mind up to great novel writing ideas.  Think about novels you have read or films that gave you enjoyment and advanced your view of the world.  How did they direct you with new insight in a way that was profound?  List your favorites writing down what they have in common and their most interesting sections.  What your favorite stories have in common may be written in different genres. Literary fiction (in general is meaning,) is anything that does not fit into a genre fiction (more entertainment.)  Depending, literary and genre can be shared.  Not all publishers work with every genre.  Check books similar to your writing to understand classification.

January 20, 2015 Revision And Self-Editing For Publication Step By Step Technique Guide

Editing means make corrections to your own work before presentation.  Revise and edit the previous day’s work before writing anything new.  This revision allows you to follow flow and becomes the first draft.  Proofread using your computer spell check and at the same time with your own eyes spell check, keeping in mind word definition.  Spell check will not include everything.  Check the grammar for correct sentence construction and subject and verb agreement.  Contractions do not (don’t) always express correct grammatical constructions.  Correct constructions result in clarifying with longer descriptive sentences.  Keep in mind how the sentence is usually heard.  Write with complete sentences and vary the structure.  Computer save each change as it is made.  Make changes and save them when errors are seen, rather than an error being left out in a collection of punctuation to add.  Many various changes all saved at the same time can delete entire paragraphs and pages.

When the first draft is complete, then from beginning to end revise and edit the manuscript on your computer.  Major elements like plot, dialogue, and characterization (for fiction,) or structure, coherency, consistency, and organization (for non-fiction.)  This is the second draft and second time to write your book.

Print out a hard copy of the completed second draft of the manuscript.  From the beginning to the end use the margins to print hand notes.  These notes are to make the story detailed with depth in any needed areas for the edit.  Using the completed hand notes for reference, with computer entries adjust the notes into the manuscript to become the third draft.

Print out a new third draft and read your manuscript aloud from beginning to end.  While reading, take notes for attention to the following information.  Enough internal and the external conflict - the plot, the difference of voice for who is speaking in dialogue, growing likable characters evolving through stakes and what happens to them, your style - voice and special personality, keep up the pace without lag to turn pages, word count guidelines and are chapters approximately the same length.  Clarify and describe in any areas for 

improvement, rewrite or cut keeping the action.  Note down all thoughts and ideas at the time you have them.  With computer entry apply the notes to the manuscript for your fourth book writing.

After completely editing your work you may decide to hire an editor.  There are different editor titles with respect to their position description.  Depending on choice, do not rely on all editors to identify your work content as there could be clarification, or your voice loss.

There are many companies that can provide a list and explanation of their editing services.  The following is a partial list of editor job titles and duties that may vary.

Proofreading, line editing, copyediting, substantive - developmental - content editing, stylistic editing (without changing your voice,) manuscript critique (road map to help you revise,) book doctoring, ghostwriting, writing consulting.

January 13, 2015 Writing Scenes With Driving Action

Consequences of the character actions are history and position in the plot.  Driving the action are the characters personal motivations to begin taking action.  The challenge in the scene related to the plot continues building the characters development.

Obstacles build drama and add conflict; they are the opposition to the protagonists’ goals.  From the first chapter on, how life is seen and lived with conflict through the arc of the story is the theme and it is settled at the end.  Detail of description enhances conflict and is the writers’ expression of style and voice.

Stretch the emotional tension description between the characters response and action.  Description slows down a scene increasing the feeling.  A character’s response and action are to gain the goal without a loss.  Consequences may be unknown immediately instead of developed expectations and questions need to be justified and answered.  Unfolding or revealing action gives credibility for the readers understanding and interest.

In the first scene establish the protagonists’ key in character with a challenge for consequences.

Opposing dialogue creates conflict and tension in each characters own voice.  Movement is the activity of characters or their surroundings within a scene, the action for forward momentum.  Mobility of characters in an activity or active interaction with dialogue includes a reader in the scene.  A book should connect with readers and there are many interests, some may read for the company of your protagonist.

December 30, 2014 A Writers Personal Expression Is Distinct

Writing that comes from your experience is unique to you and no one can replace your life knowledge.  Finding your distinct style is the same, in the expression of events directing the reader to an exciting understanding.  Personal expression of the writer through these events, include the plot and deciding the mood.  Read similar books for techniques and inspiration for development not duplicating.  This helps a writer to generate new creative writing ideas and to become the best they have to be.

Decide the time to spend for a weekly writing schedule and follow through with it.  Connect with readers by adding purposes, anticipation and surprise.  As the source create characters to keep readers company and hold their attention.  Introduce the protagonist with history, faults or challenge, what they may bring and carry with them. Entering into the story the protagonist has a goal.  Story plot and inner conflict can keep the protagonist from attaining that goal.  Reveal the protagonists conflict and inner resistance.  How will your protagonist get past the sensitive situations or pressures to attain the goal?  With descriptive action and interaction what do the results reveal?  Of three emotional scenes, one with learned experience at or near the end, decide if the protagonist attains the goal.

November 30, 2014 Protagonist Versus Antagonist - Made More Interesting In Literature

When there is tension in dialogue it is more interesting.  Tension can be created when pursuing or attracting someone and forcing their move toward or with the opposing force.  With conflict an essential basic element in a plot the antagonist opposes the protagonist then conflict and tension follow or occur as a result.  

A loss resulting in harm is barely perceptible when there are big stakes and a solution is given to the protagonist.  When that solution is a life changing loss the protagonist or the main character is being manipulated by the antagonist as a villain (the bad guy,) and against whom a hero (the good guy) fights in order to help himself or give aid others.

The antagonist precedes arbitrarily with a theft even when that could cause an inner or a moral conflict inside his mind.  An antagonist usually will want to escape notice of their intentional removing to deprive of any type of property.  Ensuring their security of a position hidden or not as a type of recognized authority, and or possibly partially concealed by official documents in place.  Most antagonist promotion strategies could apply a documents context to any or all of their actions to reinforce their position as official.  An antagonist and his group identity’s shows qualities that are in contrast with qualities of the protagonist. 

Threats to result in harm done by a malicious antagonist are when the antagonist usually tries to ensure that someone else gets punishment.  Even a document could be used by the antagonist to stave off any punishment to avoid defeat or downfall.  The protagonist is forced to comply with arbitrary official document demands, a form of intimidation.  The antagonist struggles against the protagonist taking the plot to the crisis the major turning point.

The crisis is placed close to the conclusion.  The conclusion is the protagonist retains his worked for or earned belongings, such as home, vehicle, possessions and right to continue financial management.  The antagonist is no longer allowed access to literally sell and throw away belongings or the protagonist into the street as homeless.  The list of antagonist applicants to determine the protagonists’ financial management for gains to whatever areas hostile or not, with protagonist levels of learning could be left as a cliff hanger story end.  The applicants odious human trafficking continues in applied policy levels by official sanctioning and appointment.

What the protagonist understands and what the antagonist understands, does it come out in their conversation?  Does the antagonist interpret a response as criticism becoming indignant with whatever levels of education and or experience or point out documented text?

With the protagonist are his goals expressed versus the antagonist’s goals?  If responses are on the surface there are no layers of subtle meaning.  In real life people are not always open, honest, and or good at communication.

Characters could manipulate or evade, tell half-lies or lies of omissions or out-and-out lies. Do they misunderstand each other and or themselves?  Readers experience the scene through the viewpoint character's perceptions.

September 28, 2014 Story Prompts Of Characters

What would you look at being the character?  What feelings and experiences would it inspire?

1) Your character’s a criminal defense attorney who travels between courthouses to defend clients of every kind.  Many clients seem surprisingly unconcerned about their situations.  Your character decides he will have to take matters in his own hands and find out about their situations for himself. For him using every tactic, law is about justice and saving his own life.

2) Your character is a criminologist, in the field of forensics.  A police detective is assisting and at times challenging him.  He has to choose sides with clues reaching back into the cities dark past, of a killer madwoman who won’t stop.

3) Your character a weather investigator is summoned to another country to analyze mysterious noises—recently sound only has battered the outside of homes.  He discovers evidence that may be extraterrestrial.  Historically a powerful documented civilization that has surfaced to carry out its final phase against its most hated enemies, the new world order. 

4) Your characters mother who is about to get married is in a mysterious car crash. Everything on hold the small family to be vacations across country.  They encounter volcanic refugees on their strange journey.  Adventurous encounters are gripping as they make their way back home.

5) Your character is sailing toward a foreign land to claim his century’s old birthright when the vessel is captured.  Treachery from a mainland powerful dark organization may be the cause of the savage ship capture. Your character is offered a choice.

July 6, 2014 Tension By Revealing Writing Technique

As the story unfolds the increasing size of something or less extensive than it first appears is one tension technique.  The following example is an excerpt from my latest Thriller book.

On one of the turns she happened to glance up above the tree line. In the sky there was a white disc object; red fieryhollow rings started to come from it. Actually it seemed they were coming closer, and were growing larger the closer they got to her.

She turned a corner and the disc was covered by a mountain ridge. That’s better she thought, I’ll bet Jay has never seen anything

like that. Wait until I tell him about it, I know he’s into physics. What fun he’ll be so excited to know what is flying just north of his city. She took another drink of white chocolate mocha coffee. Anna drove many miles as the curved highway 101 followed the coastline. She rounded a curve to find herself in the strange swirls of a misty fog bank. She saw light blue areas in the white fog. Farther into the fog she slowed her car down.

Small water droplets began hitting her windshield from the thick fog. She could see the fog droplets were rotating in a light blue glow as they generated in mid-air just in front of her car. The droplets were spiral spreading outward and became smaller. Anna realized her simple drive south had become a white knuckle ride to stay on the highway, in almost stop driving conditions.  Slow driving through the strange thick fog for over an hour, brought her out into a thin mist that sparkled with gold sun streaks. Anna felt a sweep of relief; finally she had navigated

out of the strange fog. Somehow the air had changed from moist and cold to heat with no transition. She turned her heater off while the outside

air heat increased reminding her of a desert in summer. Ahead above the highway the sky looked anything but normal. Earths blue sky had a green sparkle that swept over and showered down through it. Anna decided earth must have taken a near direct hit from a gigantic solar flare. Even her cars radio had news stations that were talking about the sun’s increased solar activity. She hoped the high temperatures would return to normal soon. The crescent shape flare rapidly swept in a point toward the west, its heat effect and sparkling green had disappeared. Anna didn’t expect the drive from Coos Bay, Oregon to Crescent City, California to be unpleasant. She hadn’t realized the weather would transform her trip into a terrifying series of events. Driving time passed quietly with nothing more out of the ordinary. She was almost alone on the highway; she noticed that few cars had driven past her. She turned the heater on again; the open ocean air once again was still cool in the late spring.

My Thriller book:  Secret Terror In Wavelengths, has a Techno element.  If interested it can be found on  and purchased or ordered from over 25,000 booksellers worldwide.

June 29, 2014 Stories Goal With insight

Insight adds into the speaker’s personal issues, the nature of his or her relationship to another character, and also can illustrate an aspect of the story’s thematic message.  New experiences reveal surprises as new interpretations and understandings are exposed through the journey. The following excerpt from my latest Thriller book.

As their space craft cleared the mountains, Lieutenant Ilyon clicked on the computer imaging map of targeted Earth areas.

“Lieutenant Ilyon, direct our craft to my chosen cargo release point,” ordered Captain Nar. "Project ships wavelengths to burn a clear path on Earth's surface for 90 earth miles now.”

“We are now underway as you ordered,” confirmed Ilyon. “All wavelengths are set Captain Nar. Green vegetation will shrivel and crumble to dust as we pass over it.”

Battle Craft in Nar's fleet were all the same. A disc craft with a semi-flattened dome was above the war rooms. One third of the inner lower dome displayed targeted earth areas, inter-dimensional travel paths and systems within the universes. The center of the dome could be cleared for viewing any area of interest.

Outer skin of the craft played an important part in projection of opposing particles. Those particles changed as all space is not the same, resulting in propulsion of the craft. Sensors constantly monitored outer changing particles to interact with the projection system. The result was direction and speed.

A separate projection system was used to direct circular hollow fiery rings or emanate overall wavelengths, for destruction of their intended targets. Inside the craft was grey in color. The crew’s quarters took up a portion of the outside ring for a number of over two thousand crew members. One smaller section of the lower inner level opened outward for craft access. The center outside diameter had porthole viewing windows from an outer white color craft.

“Contact the fleet Lieutenant Ilyon. Increase the suns wavelengths and earths volcanic seismic wavelength activity. Both wavelengths will penetrate through all of Earths slower moving particles.” His light brown eyes oddly sparkled in the light, Nar continued, “Increase with the sun until people lose consciousness. They will wake up with some memory loss. The volcanic irradiation wavelengths will heat through people, until their skin is red.”

Ilyon threw a contemptuous look at the viewing screens, the lids of his light brown eyes narrowed. “Captain Nar, you need my assistance. With selected map areas of coverage; earth’s population will not suspect, there are intelligent wavelength controlling sources. Alternate the wavelengths intensity intermittently, around the planet. Earth will have more frequent earthquakes and storms, both will intensify.”

“Of course,” Nar agreed reflectively glancing at the screens. “I can certainly understand that. This will plunge the world into a time of global crisis. Permission is granted Ilyon your suggestion is accepted. Monitor the various light frequencies and reactions of the nearest space objects and the diffuse plasma clouds, there may be subtle changes. We don’t want to attract any surprise guests.”

Abruptly Ilyon turned to the bank of controls and contacted the battle group. He licked his lips as he entered the additional order to alternate the wavelengths intermittently. He turned back to Nar, “I have ordered the battle group to complete your requested task,” Ilyon said calmly. “They have acknowledged. All Battle Group wavelengths have been fired simultaneously. Our dimension has increased interactive wavelength intensity and will maintain the increase,” Ilyon said.

Low conversation among crew members in the crafts war room went silent. They knew complete destruction of earth was coming.

A door slid open and crew members came into the war room. They gathered and watched the viewing screens. It had started, the long awaited for time when all of their hard work would be completed at once. Crew could now see as they stood under the overhead dome, a long arching arm of one gigantic sparkling solar flare. It was rapidly reaching out in a travel path through black space toward earth. The flare one of many to come would add electromagnetism to earths causing more earthquake swarms with increased quake magnitudes. Earths only relief would be in its rotation. Flares would unbalance earth’s electric charges; sweeping more away in daylight than night hours could accumulate.

My Thriller book:  Secret Terror In Wavelengths, has a Techno element.  If interested it can be found on  and purchased or ordered from over 25,000 booksellers worldwide.

May 25, 2014 Psychology Today: Stories Are Psychology

Each characters growth or interaction is an awareness of attraction or danger.  This awareness can arise through experience and at times circumstances driving logic or feeling.  The following excerpt is from my latest Thriller book.

 Phil felt like a distant observer around Nanci when she had more to say than most people. Tonight he felt like Nanci and something else was watching him through her.  Had she responded to something she wasn’t telling him about!  Knowing Nanci it wouldn’t take her long to start talking about it if there was something he should know. She had begun to have a certain tone of interrogation in her speech.  He didn’t really like being questioned in that manner.  Why would she interrupt to try and block progress! He remembered what Nar did to Nanci and realized she probably did sound more in charge than Nar would want.  He hadn’t ever voiced being in charge like Nanci was driven to.

He suspected Nar might plan to inflict the same injury on him.  Why Nanci would confront him with Nar’s behavior made sense now.  Possible she was trying to drag him into a bad situation.  She would have to be watched even more closely without feeling trapped.  He had no desire to be tortured; all he could do was complete his work as usual, he was the supervisor in charge.

Several network supervisors walked into his office.  “Phil, the devices have been picked up for distribution,” a network member said.  “Some of the members want to know if you have additional information for them before they leave."

Phil hadn’t expected a follow up for instructions he had already given.  That was beginning to fit in with Nanci’s reactions.  There was something else he had noticed barely discernible about some of the members.  They seemed to be getting somewhat distant and a little disjointed when they spoke.  In fact even the air around him seemed to change when they were present.  He knew there was nothing about them that was familiar to him; yet it seemed they had become almost non-human and dangerous with more demands.  He decided he would ignore it unless something really drastic happened, then he would deal with them.

“There is something that has come to my attention,” Phil said.  “We are moving ahead with our mission.  Make sure you tell everyone they are not expendable.  Nothing has changed we are assured of success; we have the upper hand, a technology that can’t be surpassed and the intelligence behind it that will last forever never changing.”

“We’ll get the news out to network personnel,” the member said.  “They need to know what is happening so they can make plans and move forward.”

“Our helicopters on the ships off shore and from other inland areas will be flying through for moral,” Phil said.  “They can land anywhere is the idea.  They are less obvious for us than jets.”

“Nar and his battle group are here to support us and be visible,” a member said.  “We know his battle group will interact in our defense.  We just haven’t seen that happen yet.”

“Nar is waiting for all of the devices to be delivered.  Then we begin our offensive for complete control,” Phil said.  He looked around the room.  “We are more effective with the devices; this is not a tug of war.  Nar is going have a complete overwhelming success and we are destined to rule earth for Nar.”

“Have patience, Nar and his battle group will come in visibly above us surrounding all of us and then defend us,” Phil told them.  “Keep in mind we are the ground forces and they are the air support.”

Phil clicked a switch on a small control panel.  One of his wall screens lit up.  “This is from one of our surveillance cameras covering a valley to the east,” he said.  “Hundreds of Nar’s battle group are gathered for our support.  You can see them hovering in a square formation.  They have gone to great lengths for us to avoid detection.  There are countless valleys like this around the world.  They are well organized and have continually defended us with wavelengths from individual and group craft.”

My Thriller book:  Secret Terror In Wavelengths, has a Techno element.  If interested it can be found on  and purchased or ordered from over 25,000 booksellers worldwide.

April 15, 2014 #Character And Word Order

Especially challenging to the interesting character of choice are the situations they are put into.  Grip your reader and return them safely, a lot has happened in full circle.  There are options to arrange speech for maximum effect.  Closeness to the characters emotion and action levels can end with a unity of life going on. 

The following excerpt from my Thriller book:  Secret Terror In Wavelengths, has a Techno element.  If interested it can be found on  and purchased or ordered from over 25,000 booksellers worldwide.

Jay and Leo wasted no time in taking charge of the network device.  The device was now on a table in one of the back offices was hooked up to testing equipment.  Everything about the device was being input into their computer system.

A thick red glow streamed through the huge plate glass windows into the dining room.  It surrounded dinner guests, while most of them were still seated.

With the red glow came a cold electric feeling that caused a sense of apprehension that something sinister had entered.  That feeling was caused by the very real wavelengths surrounding them; that everyone in Nar’s dimension lived in daily.  Just the nearness of the UFO’s close observation of people caused the unsettling feeling.

Guests near the windows stood to watch, and everyone could see the UFO’s outside hovering.  It lasted more than twenty minutes, and then the bizarre red glow receded back to the UFO.

Guests and members watched from the windows as the UFO’s headed in a flight to the south.  Everyone’s sensing and thoughts returned to normal when the UFO’s were a distance away.  Their dining room was warm and comfortable again; many people breathed a sigh of relief when the excruciating ordeal had ended.

For what seemed like a small eternity Knoton and Anton looked through the windows.

“We’ll tell the Commander about this as soon as he comes back from the offices,” Knoton said quietly.  “The UFO’s showing up outside the windows affecting everyone like that is not what anyone expected.  They seem to have caused a connection we haven’t been able to confirm ever before.”

Looking down on the device setting on a work table, the Commander said, “Leo we have to duplicate the wavelength from this device and Nar’s wavelength so we can block them.”

“We’re working on it, and once we have that from the intensities, let’s search out to locate the wavelength from Stephen’s faster quantum dimension.”

“I’m with you on that, measure, trace and track to block Nar and the network from anywhere,” the Commander said.

January 14, 2014 Ways Readers Believe your Story

Action for characters can also describe the motions they use to get to their goal.  When possible act out the moves for those motions yourself.  Where needed, the written details of sight, sound, smell and touch help make a believable character.  This can also help your characters transition toward the next scene.  The following are character examples in action.

He couldn’t call for help; it began to seem he wouldn’t likely be found.  Realizing the threat Jay broke into an unrestrained run up the street in his dress uniform.

It is just possible; he thought there might be time to avoid the incoming craft and ran toward the left cross street.

Jay was forced to run toward the craft.  He would be able to get to the cross street; it gave a greater distance away, from the crafts closing angle of approach.

Jay put together his escape.  He saw hedges ahead; he would turn right along the tall hedges, up the next street and he would be home.  In a full run his knees were waist level and legs stretching out.

He heard the graveled pavement under his dress shoes crunch grinding loose rock.  But not enough rock to slide him off balance.  If it did he knew he would get up and keep running. 

The neighbors had heard him running and watched his approach.  To his right a group of neighbors stood looking out from there porch.  One of them with an overhead arm motion toward Jay yelled, “Why are you running?”

Details can make your story seem to be true.  Details are how we know what we know.

October 20, 2013 Writing Mood The Feel Of A Story

Mood is conveyed to the reader through description of the writer.  Emotions are described for characters.  Introduce the characters obstacle, a thing or person that will try to stop the character from achieving the overall goal.  Open the story with a hint of mood a foreshadowing of what is to come.  What kind of mood for the feel of a story, may be given by the genre the book is written in by helpful research.

A few sub genres listed are the Techno-thriller with the theme of technology and threat of force using that technology.  A Techno-thriller may link the adventure, suspense, action and mystery from other genres.

Dark fantasy uses the individual mind or minds of others in imaginative power, to achieve changes or results through the supernatural, without the use of technology.  Dark fantasy has a sense of horror and dread.  Legends, fairy-tales, urban fantasies and more contain supernatural elements.

Spy fiction includes special-forces training and use of gadgets to achieve their secret mission from a government source.  Military fiction, Bounty hunters and Western fiction such as cowboy fiction are also sub genres.

Adventure genre includes many aspects of other genres as the protagonist has a journey or mission to accomplish and win through obstacles against all odds.

Faction genre having real historical people and events is interspersed with fiction and can give differences throughout.

Detective stories give information evolving to solve a crime, even if it seems impossible.  Professional or armature protagonist, the why and how of the crime must be solved.  More sub genres are gangster, legal thriller and murder mystery.

     Phil looked across to Jay through spaces of subdued lighting.  “Commander is that you?” Phil said, with a slight glow of innocence.  “I thought I might have recognized you.”

     In response Jay said, “It is me.  Well do I know you?”  Jay raised a suspicious eyebrow.

     Phil turned his gaze in silence; to the sound of running feet, from the direction of the halls closed double doors.  He watched as a grey suited man, who had stepped out of the hall, walked up to his table.

September 15, 2013 The Most Exciting Parts In A Story

Write a lot to develop through practice.  The more you read about what interests you and write, the better you get.  Achieve different effects in writing with techniques learned from your reading.  Start writing and make progress daily.  Writing has many wonders and becomes its own reward.

In the characters daily life the reader gets to know your characters and to understand the conflict. You can accomplish this by showing instead of telling.  Lead readers to expect something to happen -- then surprise them with something different.

Something interrupts the protagonist’s daily life in a call to action. There may be resistance entering into the new situation, where something surprising happens.

The character understands the new situation, with any number of experiences.  Create delays by adding conflict and tension to build suspense just before the stakes rise.

Stakes rise with a change and build up conflict to a crisis point.  A decision or change has to be made.  This point is called the story climax. The rest of the story depends on what happens at this time. This story highpoint can generate great suspense for your reader.

The protagonist temporarily defeated prepares for action against the antagonist.  Develop your story middle and keep the momentum going. Use plot complications to maintain action, interest, and excitement. Discover motivation for the action-packed story middle.

What events or characters bring strength or weakness out of the main character?  Events can make the character closer to attaining the goal, or push farther away.

A final plan is organized with a turning point or a confrontation.  Already your readers will feel close to your main character and will share his or her feelings; directly by the setting, physical reactions, and through the character's behavior.

Climax may include the protagonist arriving at the confrontation, then events turn against the protagonist and against all odds the protagonist wins.  Depending on how the climax is acted out, the main character learns something from experiences; this is called the story's resolution.  Write a great story ending that will seal readers' satisfaction with your story. Learn how to use curve endings to surprise and thrill your readers.

The sections that reveal something important are the sections you want to turn into gripping scenes.  The reader wants to experience through your main character’s perspective; in the present with detail in dialogue, sights, sounds and smells.

August 18, 2013 Dialogue Flow

Dialogue is an emotional landscape with action shaping characters different from another and often opposing with conflict.  Start with dialogue to create a sense of action, simple dialogue tags are said and asked.

Characters experience sights, smells, sounds, and sensations through some descriptive dialogue.

     “Not to worry, I can use the phone inside,” Jay said.  There was a heavy salty fish smell blown in from the beaches and the air was unusually dry Jay noticed.  He turned sweeping his arm toward the ocean.

Give concise dialogue a purpose advancing the story with action.  For interior monologue stop dialogue for a few sentences, describe your character's thoughts, feelings, and reactions.

     Next to the car a black retriever was walking unleashed down the street, in front of a blond man and woman, they were both overweight.  They didn’t really look familiar.

     There had been loud crashing noises and shouts outside the night before.  Anna thought it could have been them.  She turned from the side curtain and walked to her bedroom.

Maintain curiosity and alternate sentence length to stretch the tension in an exciting scene, for the reader to find the answer.

     He stood looking at another erupting solar flare arm; it bent first then its point stretched directly for earth.

     "There’s always a job for energy,” Nar said.  “Even people are placed energy to be guided by us.  They attach to our chosen energy; from repetition in actions and thought.  They continue unable to change then they are forever secured.”

     “Anyone that strays too close is attached,” Ilyon admitted, pursing his lips.

Break up the dialogue sentence with descriptive character action, a pause and show the reader an instant of suspense.  Foreshadowing gives the reader an advance hint, a warning of what's going to happen.

Place details, elements, or information in your story that the reader can expect to connect the importance of later.

     “Contact our dimension and tell them to increase Wave Links,” Nar said.  “We will give the people on earth many more intruding thoughts to think about than they have ever realized possible.”

The main character learns something end the chapter with a cliffhanger.

Write down everything that occurs to you.  You can edit later during the revision stage.

Read out loud to check for clarity, logic, and flow.

July 14, 2013 Narrative Flow

In narrative description a place or character drives the story, it sets the mood.  Sight, sound, taste, smell, and feel the surroundings or conflict with another character.  Crisp air is an example to set the mood for a reader.  The reader is shown by surroundings, and with characters in descriptive action.  Narrative moves the story forward.  The flow of the following paragraph increases drama and the reader will want to know what happens next.  The progression of events or what comes next with description engage the reader.

Slightly to his right, just below the mountain top a gigantic shimmering red flat cloud was forming.  Throughout the cloud there were small bright white flashes, and then they stopped.  Now taking shape from the cloud, a red glowing disk had appeared on the mountain side.

The next paragraph is how he reacts to the red glowing disk.  Narrative can be used to help develop a character and settings.  What you clearly define in your experience, is the reaction you want your reader to be involved in. Use narrative instead when characters are having too much dialogue with their personal thoughts.

Sound, Smell, Feel: Cold air was bringing the heavy mold smell of old growth forest into the van, Nancy shivered.  Near the road a loud low to chilling high pitched scream pierced the air lingering.  It turned to rolling shrill screams; and ended with deep coughing, it was a mountain lion.  That gave Nancy another reason to shiver, she immediately closed her window.

Taste: “Coffee yes that sounds good,” Knoton said, standing in the office door.  He breathed in, the air distinctly smelled of coffee.  He raised his coffee cup.

Conflict: They had walked to where Nar sat.  He thought he had been talking too quietly for Nar to hear him but he was wrong.

Nar gave them a cool gaze and smiled.  “We are at the pick-up site.”

Nar watched the loading crew walk silently back across the war room and the entry doors slid solidly shut behind them.

June 23, 2013 Writing Dialogue, Narrative, And Action

“He said”, or “she asked”, indicates who’s speaking.  Don’t force your reader to re-read and figure out who's saying what, especially when several characters are conversing.

When using direct dialogue; it sets the scene, advances plot, reminds the reader, shows who the characters are and reflects the theme. Dialogue does many things at once.

     “You’re right,” Jay said, as he switched off his speaker phone.

     Anna drove into Jay’s circular drive.  She saw him inside leave the front windows and step outside to greet her.

     “It’s great to see you again Anna,” Jay said.  “I’m happy you came down.”

     “It’s wonderful to see you Jay,” Anna said.  “It hasn’t been that long since I was here.”

     Anna stepped out of her car and faced Jay.

Dialogue changes with challenge between characters, gives each word purpose and sets the tone.  When opening a scene, dialogue challenges can effectively increase the reader’s interest.  Plot rather than character driven stories; generally use dialogue with action, showing and moving the story quickly with less narrative.

     “You’ll be leaving right away?” Leo asked.

     “Yes my cousin Anna is on her way down; so I will shop for a few groceries,” the Commander said.  “After we have lunch we can come to the Post.  You can show her our new additions Leo, she will like that."

Narrative can tell character emotion, feelings and describe when needed.  Narrative summery tells and without a lot of detail transitions to the next scene. 

Decide when to show or tell; characters emotions and feelings, to engage readers in the experience.

     Slow diving through the strange thick fog for over an hour, brought her out into a thin mist that sparkled with gold sun streaks.  Anna felt a sweep of relief; finally she had navigated out of the strange fog.   

June 23, 2013 Time Balance For Writing.

A balance between your web sites/blogs, to research realistic fiction, and novel writing is important.  Realistic writing should be believable to engage your reader.  Research your writing for details that your reader will find more interesting.

Using reliable internet sites can be a fast way to research. - Visit your library, and if your library is online with your library card you can research. - Photographs travel, and interviews can provide information and inspiration. - Read books in your genre and what is best selling can help to make decisions. - Television may have presentations dated or not. - Newspapers may have online options. - Sources should give accurate up to date information. - Some of the best fiction comes from real life. - Some details help craft your story to include your readers. - What is really thought of or voiced in conversation. - The scent of fir trees or other short descriptions give a real visual depth. - Show readers through character action and interaction. - Always take notes to streamline your process. - A rested clear mind is important.

**Research for the elements of your novel**

Conflict – weaving the drama elements of the novel together.  Use action with some stirring dialogue.

Character – learning to do something beyond their flaws through the course of the novel.  Each character prompts the other to action or a situation can prompt to action.

Structure & Plot – the basic three act structure.

Act 1 – introduction to setting and character; with some dialogue that drives the main character into the conflicting story situation.

Act 2 – the story develops through obstacles temporarily resolved, each through a rise then falling of tension.  These lead to tension and the ultimate crisis confrontation.

Act 3 – The crisis, tension and loose end story threads are rapidly resolved.  A readers interest is not held long, complete the novel.

Read your novel again.  It should sound right with researched information.

Think of high end reviews in advance, they are an important quality indicator and show people your novel is available.

June 16, 2013 Characters

With sufficient motivation the character wants something with relationship interaction.  How the protagonist perceives and reacts in scene situations overall, is the theme relating to the plot.  Include a leading protagonist near the first paragraph of each scene.  In most fiction, point of view is kept to one POV per scene, each scene has tension.  The POV is who the action is viewed through, and not knowing other characters thoughts will not express them accidentally.  Keep the few points of view consistent as the story progresses, to engage the reader.

Relevant dialogue shows the character and uncovers information.  Show what your characters experience in setting, action and dialogue rather than telling in narrative.  Narrative can be effective showing the character with description before a confrontation.  Dialogue moves the story faster, if important description of focus is added it slows the momentum.  Read your story out loud to hear what is natural.  Know your characters back story weaving a small amount with action.  If back story is used the reader should care about the characters current situation.  Decide the essential past before the novel began, leading up to why the character is sufficiently motivated.  

Introduce the character with a few descriptive lines; then following less detail in dialogue, action or inner thoughts.  Action and reaction moves the plot or characters in the most interesting way.  Action and inner conflict can show character emotions, some back story may be used.  From action to dialogue add enough plot related setting.  With descriptive emotional thoughts of a scene about to take place, the scene is set for action.  Reveal specific information to keep up the pace into confrontations and how they are resolved.

Conflict is added that is relevant to the plot and between characters, to increase the stakes.  Emotion and suspense reveals characters moving their stories forward in the plot.  Characters have differences one from another.  Use voice dialogue and behavior rather than narrative summary to reveal character.  Inner thoughts can give the reader views into desire, fear, motivation and challenges.  Characters are developed with their personal perspective and why they do things.

Involve your protagonist in the plot undergoing tension, energy and momentum.  Your protagonist is the one who engages through the emotional arc in the plot.  Compel your protagonist to reconsider or change through story events.  A protagonist may remain essentially the same, but grows or learns from actions or events in the story.  Readers should always know what the character wants.  A story ending expresses how the protagonist has changed or overcome.

Scene Development

You want your reader’s attention in the very first sentence.  Characters are vivid with reality writing in the present time.  Characters grow through change in your narrative.  Scenes are illuminated through the point of view they are seen in.  Reality action is memorable bringing the story forward.  Dialogue reveals new plot information with actions of the characters in described motion.  Individual characters though conflict and trials with action come alive.  Readers enter and live in the scene with all of their senses that the characters and physical setting create.

Dramatic tension can be linked to conflict and involve the reader with interest.  Scene subtext builds layers of emotion through images.  Character actions have purpose and profound ways to change characters through drama.  With pacing and length, you control the kind of emotion your scenes have.  Telling is the narrative summary of explanation, a participation that is kept to a minimum.  If it can’t be used in present dialogue it is summary.  Showing is where the character enhances reading through involvement in action, thought and dialogue with specific details.

Scene sections and chapter breaks offer the reader a chance to pause.  A long scene after intense dialogue or action can slow the pace.   This allows the protagonist or reader to reflect on what has happened building toward the next scene.  Action and reactions in scenes can be extended with dialogue. If what you are writing can be used in dialogue you are writing a scene.  Long scenes should be interspaced with short scenes.

Short scenes provide new information picking up pace and advancing the plot.  With less time than a longer scene they can clarify one characters action’s from another.  Main characters with more involvement get longer scenes.   Shorter scenes can give pieces of information, create suspense, or be a cliff hanger.  They can be used for multiple scenes within a chapter.  Spaced throughout long scenes they can influence but not interrupt the plot. 

Scenes have a beginning, middle and end.  Beginning the scene draws your reader’s interest into whose scene it is and what they want, close to the middle or central action.  Middle of the scene raises the steaks higher with suspense, tension levels, conflict with reaction and some resolution.  Scene endings weave interesting story lines to prompt reading the next scene.

The Marshall Plan for Novel Writing by Evan Marshall has the number of scenes in a book based on the books length.  A 100,000 word novel has 80 scenes in it.  Twenty scenes in act one, 40 scenes in act two, and 20 scenes in act three.  The Marshall formula scenes are around 1250 words long.

June 16, 2013 Plot And Character

A story can be plot driven with a three act structure of beginning, middle, and end or character driven.

The opening is gripping.  The lead character has a personal problem, plot problem and is on a profound journey for, self-realization, happiness, something crucial or finally recognized.  The protagonist’s bond can be a moral duty.  What are the main characters losses if the objective isn’t achieved?  In a thriller it can be physical or failure.  If it is psychological foreboding atmosphere surrounds the character.  Opposition to the protagonist should increase.

Suspense arises naturally from characters and circumstances.  From the protagonist the plot includes the readers in; objective a destination, confrontation raising the stakes of importance, there may be a time crunch, inability to take action, or the unknown before the triumph.

In a quest, revenge, friendship, change, adventure, few against, the lone hero, power, an atmosphere of death.

Essential dialogue advances the plot.  To describe events the viewpoint character narrative should be in every scene.

A plot has more exciting possibilities when the setting changes.  Add another character.

Things that are done are the expertise in each scene to advance the plot, each more profound than the last.  Sub plot can slow pace before the next exciting event.  To flow smoothly in the sequence of things map them from beginning to end.  The antagonist may want to know that their strategy works by playing the protagonist in conversation.  The antagonist may be a leader with tenacity.

A strong story structure is created by linking the character and plot closely together.

Events in the story are meaningful causing the character to change.  The character’s desire, motivation, weaknesses, and discovered strengths, drive story events.

A character arc is the continued change from beginning to end of the story.  It is the believable connected changes, as a result of what has happened.  The surface level of happening events, are when the protagonist pursues goals, struggling against forced situations by behavior and reactions.  The difficulties in personal weakness cause a change to take place in the protagonist and are under the surface or invisible, the reason to obtain the goals.  Other characters with motives and desires add influence and also drive the story’s conflict for a believable story.

The antagonist and protagonist have incompatible goals, if one wins, the other loses.  Locked into a struggle, neither one can give up before the end.  When one makes a move, the other must react, in a chain of action with reaction advancing the plot forward.

For thrillers everything is increased.

Development For Novel Research

How much development in research do you need?  Exactly as much development as it takes to tell the story.

Describing your research can be used, it clarifies your story.  Edit a paragraph of your story adding some action description to words in place.  As an example if the word rain was used, then driving rain might be added. 

Your research may have included rain and its effects, if a scene included a rain forest.  This can apply to other researched words.

A thesaurus with correct description for effect’s your reader will share is important.  Those new descriptions can add reality to the story. Then with re-reading inspire your additional creative writing.  Your story is brought to life, rather than just using an interesting progression of character dialogue interactions.  Sharing much more with your reader, gives them interest to read your story.

When characters are in action, one different from the other then there must be a reaction.  Reaction is a great time to use your research, to verify the character in dialog, narrative or a situation.  Interactions can lengthen a scene.  This also can give each character a difference in physical living action.

Narrative or a situation in dialogue gives time to know what important factors drive the character forward.  It becomes the thoughts and reason for that characters purpose in the story.  In writing characters thoughts can be known and shared, rather than viewing only actions on television.  The power of the written word, is the story within the character.

Reveal the character through dialogue, situations and conflict.  New information in the middle or at the end of a scene, can give emotional action and reaction weaving the plot together.  Reality enlightens something actually within the readers grasp, and moves the plot forward.

A reader is in the scene at the beginning, middle and end.  The goal of a scene is experienced with less summary or telling, and more dialogue when needed.  Summary at the end of a scene is one way to transition into the next scene, section or chapter.


Beginning – The main character a description and setting.

Middle – The main characters entry and goal.

End – There may be conflict or obstacles.

If the description and setting are already in place, then the scene starts with conflict or obstacles.

Writing Process Stages - Inspiration – idea for a story. Development – connected details resolved. Exposition – techniques to reveal sequence progression. Storytelling – communication in chosen words.

The flow of writing is smooth clear and concise to hold your readers interest. Where writing is vague sharpen it. Tension is stretched in an exciting scene. Read your scenes out loud for flow in logic and clarity. If the story flow is interrupted, cut the unnecessary words, sentences, scenes and pages.

You decide for action and dialogue knowing what comes before and after.  The reader should want to read on with the flow.

There’s no rule to write in order.  Write the scenes for beginning, middle or end, with your ideas that are easily thought of.  Fill in the pages if you’re not sure how to begin.

Write four different beginning paragraphs.  Decide which one has more descriptive development possibilities of interest, for the reader to read on. Through reading what you are interested in, focus on the techniques being used for different effects.  Write a lot and develop your style through practice trying different techniques.  Be consistent writing every day or at set times during the week.

Copyright NumberTitle

Wawrzyniak, Janett Lee, 

Copyright NumberTitle
Subtitle / AuthorDate

TX0007479735Electromagnetism in Stars Light Returning to Earth Again Interacting.
Wawrzyniak, Janett Lee2011

TX0007580176Recipes of Relatives.
Wawrzyniak, Janett Lee2011

Wawrzyniak, Janett Lee2012

bottom of page